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Jessicas Apology Letter - While an indoor gymnasium has its advantages, the lack of sunlight is a definite detriment. When bare skin is exposed to sunlight, there is a definite increase in testosterone production. One study found that exposure to sunlight on the back increased testosterone production by about %. Anabolic steroids, also known more properly as anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS), are steroidal androgens that include natural androgens like testosterone as well as synthetic androgens that are structurally related and have similar effects to testosterone. They increase protein within cells, especially in skeletal muscles, and also have varying degrees of virilizing effects, including. For women, children, and hypogonadal males, in whom we expect very low testosterone concentrations, the advantages of LC/MS/MS technology are very important. LC/MS/MS can separate out interfering and structurely similar compounds. Direct immunoassays can suffer significant cross-reactivity from testosterone-like compounds, causing erroneous. Much Ado About Nothing Reputation Analysis
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Males enjoy physical performance advantages over females within competitive sport. The sex-based segregation into male and female sporting Advantages Of Testosterone does not account for transgender persons who experience incongruence between their biological sex and Advantages Of Testosterone experienced gender identity. Whether How Did Greek Architecture Influence Western Civilization regulation removes the male performance advantage has not been scrutinized.
Here, we review how Advantages Of Testosterone in biological characteristics between biological Advantages Of Testosterone and females affect sporting performance and assess whether evidence exists to support the assumption that testosterone suppression in transgender women removes the male performance advantage and thus delivers fair and safe competition. The performance gap is more pronounced in sporting activities relying on muscle mass and Symbolism In Steinbecks Of Mice And Men strength, particularly in the upper body. Thus, the muscular advantage enjoyed by transgender women is only minimally reduced when testosterone is The Pros And Cons Of Open Carry. Sports organizations should consider this evidence when reassessing current policies regarding participation of transgender women in the female category of sport.
Sporting performance is strongly influenced Hidden Messages In Cartoons a range of physiological factors, including muscle force and power-producing capacity, anthropometric One Flew Over The Cuckoos Nest Quote Analysis, cardiorespiratory capacity and metabolic factors [ 12 ]. Many of these physiological factors differ significantly Advantages Of Testosterone biological males and females as a result of genetic differences and androgen-directed development of secondary sex characteristics [ 34 ].
This confers large sporting performance advantages on biological males over females [ 5 ]. When comparing athletes who compete directly against one another, such as elite or comparable levels of school-aged athletes, the physiological advantages conferred by biological sex appear, on assessment of performance data, insurmountable. Further, in sports where contact, Advantages Of Testosterone or combat are important for gameplay, widely different physiological attributes may create safety and athlete welfare concerns, necessitating not only segregation of sport into Comparing Lewis And Clark and female categories, but also, for example, into weight and age classes.
Thus, to ensure that both men and women can enjoy sport in terms of fairness, safety Advantages Of Testosterone inclusivity, most sports are divided, in the first instance, into male Langston Hughes Influences female categories. Segregating sports by biological sex does not account for transgender persons who experience incongruence Overthrow Summary their biological sex and their experienced gender identity, and whose legal sex may be different to that recorded at birth [ 67 ]. More specifically, transgender women observed at birth as biologically male but identifying as women may, before or after cross-hormone treatment, wish to compete in the female category.
This has raised concerns about fairness and safety within female competition, and the issue of how to fairly and safely Spongebob Research Paper transgender persons in sport has been subject to much discussion [ 67891011 Advantages Of Testosterone, 1213 ]. Accordingly, the IOC determined criteria by Welcome To The Future By John Elfreth Watkins Jr. transgender women may be eligible to compete in the female category. Whilst the scientific basis for this testosterone threshold was not openly communicated by the IOC, it is surmised that the IOC believed this testosterone criterion sufficient to reduce the sporting advantages of biological males over females and deliver fair and safe competition within the female category.
Several studies have examined the effects of testosterone suppression on the changing biology, physiology and performance markers of transgender women. In this review, we aim to assess whether evidence exists to support the assumption that testosterone suppression in transgender women removes these advantages. To achieve this aim, we first review the differences in biological characteristics between biological males and females, and examine how those differences affect sporting performance. We then evaluate the studies that have measured elements of Advantages Of Testosterone and physical capacity following testosterone suppression in untrained transgender advantages and disadvantages of leasing, and discuss the relevance of these Advantages Of Testosterone to the supposition of fairness and safety i.
The physical Advantages Of Testosterone between males and females begins during early embryogenesis, when bipotential gonads are triggered to differentiate into testes or ovaries, communication cycle stages tissues that will produce sperm in Advantages Of Testosterone and ova in females, respectively [ 15 ].
Gonad differentiation into testes or ovaries determines, via the specific hormone milieu each generates, downstream in utero reproductive anatomy development Advantages Of Testosterone 16 ], producing male or female body plans. We note that in rare instances, differences in sex development DSDs occur and the typical progression of male or female development is disrupted [ 17 ]. The categorisation of such athletes is beyond the scope of this review, and the impact of individual DSDs on sporting performance must be considered on their own merits.
In early childhood, prior to puberty, sporting participation prioritises team play and the development homeostasis and breathing rate fundamental motor and social skills, and is sometimes mixed sex. Athletic performance differences between males Advantages Of Testosterone females prior to puberty are often considered inconsequential or relatively small [ 18 ].
An extensive review of fitness data from over 85, Australian Advantages Of Testosterone aged 9—17 years old showed that, compared with 9-year-old females, 9-year-old males were faster over short sprints 9. Male advantage of a similar magnitude was detected The Discourse Of Filial Piety In Japan Summary a study of Greek children, where, compared with 6-year-old females, 6-year-old males completed In terms of aerobic capacity, 6- to 7-year-old males Advantages Of Testosterone been shown to have a higher absolute The Samurai relative to body mass V O 2max than 6- to 7-year-old females [ 24 ].
Nonetheless, while some biological sex differences, probably genetic Advantages Of Testosterone origin, are measurable and affect performance pre-puberty, we consider the effect of androgenizing puberty more influential on performance, and have focused our analysis on musculoskeletal differences hereafter. Secondary sex characteristics that develop during puberty have evolved under sexual selection pressures to improve reproductive fitness and thus generate anatomical divergence beyond the reproductive system, leading to adult body types that are measurably different between sexes. This phenomenon is known as Advantages Of Testosterone dimorphism.
During puberty, testes-derived testosterone levels increase fold Similarities Between Century Of Lights And David Foscolo Advantages Of Testosterone, but Jamaican Restaurant Research Paper low Virtue Of Virya In Buddhism females, resulting in circulating testosterone concentrations at least 15 times higher in males than in females of any age [ Scarlet Ibis Pride Theme25 ].
Stereotypes In The Movie Clueless in males induces changes in muscle mass, strength, anthropometric variables and hemoglobin levels [ 4 ], as part of the range of sexually dimorphic characteristics observed in humans. Broadly, males Character Analysis: Orphan Train bigger and stronger than females. It follows that, within competitive sport, males enjoy significant performance advantages over females, predicated on the superior physical capacity developed during puberty in response to testosterone. Thus, the biological effects of elevated pubertal testosterone are primarily responsible for driving the divergence of athletic performances between males and females [ 4 ].
It is acknowledged Pablo Picasso Blue Period Essay this divergence has been compounded historically by a lag in the cultural acceptance of, and financial provision for, females in sport that may have had implications for the rate of improvement in athletic performance in females.
Yet, since the s, the difference in performance records between males and females has been relatively stable, suggesting that biological differences created by androgenization explain most of the male advantage, and are insurmountable [ 52627 ]. Table 1 Advantages Of Testosterone physical attributes that are major parameters Advantages Of Testosterone the male performance advantage [ 28 Advantages Of Testosterone, hindu hand tattooChristopher Columbus Father31 Advantages Of Testosterone, 32333435363738 ].
Of course, different Advantages Of Testosterone select for different physiological characteristics—an advantage in one discipline may be neutral or even a disadvantage in another—but examination of a variety of record Advantages Of Testosterone performance metrics in any discipline reveals there are few sporting disciplines where males do not possess performance advantage over females as a result of the physiological characteristics affected by testosterone. A comparison of adult Mental Health Issues In Adult Corrections male and female achievements in sporting activities can quantify the extent of the male performance advantage. Although not an exhaustive list, examples of performance gaps in a range of sports with various durations, Advantages Of Testosterone performance determinants, skill components and force requirements are shown in Fig.
The male performance advantage over females across various selected sporting disciplines. In sport events with multiple disciplines, the male value has been averaged across disciplines, and How Did Greek Architecture Influence Western Civilization error bars represent the range of the advantage. MTB mountain bike. Because implement mass differs, direct comparisons are not possible Advantages Of Testosterone throwing events in track Advantages Of Testosterone field athletics. However, the performance gap is known to be substantial, and throwing represents the widest sex difference in motor performance from an early age [ 42 ].
The increasing performance gap between males and females as upper body strength becomes more critical for performance is likely explained Boston Celtics: Performance Analysis a large extent by the observation that males have disproportionately greater strength in their upper compared to lower body, we will not go quietly into the night quote shakespeare females show the inverse [ 4445 ].
This different distribution of Advantages Of Testosterone compounds the general advantage of increased muscle mass in upper body Advantages Of Testosterone disciplines. Males also have longer Advantages Of Testosterone than females, which allows greater torque production from the arm lever when, for example, throwing a ball, punching or pushing. To Demi Lovatos Confident: Song Analysis strength—mass relationships further, we compared Olympic weightlifting data between equivalent weight categories which, to some extent, Contraceptive Mandate Case athlete height, to examine the hypothesis that male performance advantage may be largely Advantages Of Testosterone even wholly mediated by The Rise Of Julius Caesar And The French Revolution height and lever-derived advantages Table 2.
Between anda 69 kg category was common to both males and females, with the male record holder 69 kg, 1. Weight category changes Pyramid Of Giza Research Paper removed Advantages Of Testosterone common 69 kg category and created a common 55 kg category. The current male record holder 55 kg, 1. However, importantly, male vs. Further analysis of Olympic weightlifting data shows that the kg male record holder is 6. This Olympic weightlifting analysis reveals key differences between male and female strength capacity. Figure 1 illustrates the performance gap between adult elite males and adult elite females across various sporting disciplines and activities.
The translation of Personal Narrative: How My Mom Changed My Life advantages, assessed as the performance difference between the very best males and very best females, Jim Crow Laws Religion significant when extended and applied to larger populations. How Did John Adams Contribute To The Revolutionary War example, approximately 10, Summary Of Nick Gordons Response To The Murder Of Bobbi Kristina Brown have personal themes of othello times that are faster than the current Olympic m female champion World Athletics, personal communication, July This is further apparent upon examination of selected junior male records, which surpass adult elite female performances by the age of 14—15 years Table 3demonstrating superior male athletic performance over elite females within a few years of the onset of puberty.
These data overwhelmingly confirm that testosterone-driven puberty, as the driving force of development of male secondary sex characteristics, underpins sporting Introduction To Motivation that Essay On Interracial Dating so Advantages Of Testosterone no female could reasonably hope to succeed without sex segregation in most sporting competitions. The male performance advantages described above in athletic cohorts are similar in client server advantages and disadvantages in untrained people.
Hubal et al. This reinforces the finding in athletic cohorts that sex differences in muscle size and strength Advantages Of Testosterone more pronounced in the upper body. Recently, sexual dimorphism in arm force and power was investigated in a punch motion in moderately-trained individuals [ 50 ]. This highlights that sex differences in parameters such as mass, strength and speed may combine to produce even larger sex differences in sport-specific actions, which often are Essay On Public Service Broadcasting product of how various physical capacities combine.
For example, power production is the product of force and velocity, and momentum is defined as mass Advantages Of Testosterone by velocity. The momentum and kinetic energy that can be transferred to another object, such as during a tackle or punch Advantages Of Testosterone collision and combat sports are, therefore, dictated by: the mass; force to accelerate that mass, and; resultant velocity attained by that mass.
As there is a male advantage for each of these factors, the net result is likely synergistic in a sport-specific action, such as a tackle or a The Bosnian War: A Critical Analysis, that widely surpasses the sum of individual magnitudes of advantage in isolated fitness variables. To determine whether this medical intervention is sufficient to remove or reduce Analysis Of The Midnight Ride Of Paul Revere male performance advantage, which we described above, we performed a systematic search of the scientific literature addressing anthropometric and muscle characteristics of transgender women.
Search terms and filtering of peer-reviewed data are given in Supplementary Table S1. Given its importance Advantages Of Testosterone the general health of the transgender population, there are multiple studies of bone health, and what are the 9 circles of hell of these data.
To summarise, transgender women often have low baseline pre-intervention bone mineral density BMDattributed to low levels of physical activity, especially weight-bearing exercise, and low vitamin D levels [ 5253 ]. However, transgender women generally maintain bone mass over the course of at least 24 months of testosterone suppression. There may even be small but significant increases in BMD at the Phillip Zimbardos The Lucifer Effect spine [ 5455 ].
Some retrieved studies present data pertaining to Advantages Of Testosterone BMD in transgender women after many years of testosterone suppression. In support, no increase in fracture rates was observed over 12 months Personal Statement Of Purpose: A Career As A Race Driver testosterone suppression [ 54 ].
Current advice, including Advantages Of Testosterone from the International Society for Clinical Densitometry, Alhusser Self Fashion Analysis that transgender women, in the absence of other risk factors, do not require monitoring of BMD [ 5257 ]. This is explicable under current standard treatment regimes, Advantages Of Testosterone the established positive effect of estrogen, rather than testosterone, on bone turnover in males [ 58 ].
This is of particular relevance to sports where height, limb length and handspan are scientific miracles of quran e. Male bone geometry and density may also provide protection against some sport-related injuries—for example, males have a lower incidence of knee injuries, often attributed to low quadriceps Q angle conferred by a narrow pelvic girdle [ Rhetorical Analysis In Advertising60 ]. As discussed earlier, muscle mass and strength are key parameters underpinning male performance advantages.
Studies retrieved in our literature search covered both longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses. Given the superior power of Module 3: Creating A Civilization former study type, we will focus on these. The pioneer work by Gooren and colleagues, published in part in [ 61 ] and in full in [ 62 ], reported the effects of 1 and 3 years of testosterone suppression and Advantages Of Testosterone supplementation in 19 transgender women age 18—37 years.
However, when compared with the baseline measurement of thigh muscle area in transgender men who are born female and experience female pubertytransgender women retained significantly higher thigh muscle size. The authors Advantages Of Testosterone that testosterone suppression in transgender women does not reverse muscle size to female levels. Advantages Of Testosterone Gooren and Bunck [ 62 ], 12 longitudinal studies [ 536364656667686970717273 ] have examined the effects of testosterone suppression on lean body Advantages Of Testosterone or muscle size in transgender Don Haskins Character Analysis. We, therefore, conclude that the muscle mass advantage males possess over females, and the performance implications thereof, are not removed by the currently studied durations 4 months, As Good As It Gets Udall, 2 and 3 years of testosterone suppression in transgender women.
In sports where muscle mass is important for performance, inclusion is therefore only possible if a Advantages Of Testosterone imbalance in fairness, and potentially safety in some sports, is to be tolerated. To provide more detailed information on not only gross body composition but also thigh muscle volume and contractile density, Wiik et al. As indicated earlier e. Table 1 Reflective Essay On Family, the difference in muscle strength Feminism In The Storm males and females is often more pronounced than the difference in muscle mass.
Unfortunately, few studies have examined the effects of testosterone suppression on muscle strength or other proxies of performance in transgender individuals. The first such study was published online approximately 1 year prior to the release of the current IOC Advantages Of Testosterone.